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MBA畢業論文_民宿經營者職業價值觀、情感勞動與獲得感研究DOC

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摘要 民宿是一種“有溫度的住宿,有靈魂的生活體驗”,它受到大眾旅游新時 代眾多旅游消費者的青眛,是滿足人民日益增長的美好生活的重要住宿產品, 已引起社會各界的廣泛關注。民宿經營者是民宿的“靈魂”與“核心”,但學 術界對其研究卻相對滯后。民宿經營者的職業價值觀、情感勞動和獲得感均是 經營者在民宿經營過程中的重要變量,是影響民宿企業良性發展的重要因素。 對民宿經營者職業價值觀、情感勞動和獲得感開展系統的、深入的探究有助于 抓住民宿業態發展的關鍵要素,為民宿企業經營管理和民宿業態良性發展提供 理論支撐與實踐指導。 本研究的主旨在于揭示民宿經營者的職業價值觀、情感勞動與獲得感之間 的關系機理,研究圍繞“是什么——即研究變量概念內涵的界定,識別變量的 本質屬性”、“為什么——研究變量之間的相互關系及變量之間存在的中介作 用與影響機理的理論分析與研究”和“怎么辦——驗證研究變量之間的相互關 系及中介作用的影響,探究民宿經營者獲得感的提升路徑”等三個關鍵問題展 開研究,具體的研究過程則按照“問題辨析-文獻解析-理論探析-實證分析-策 略研析”的邏輯思路進行建構。 本研究的主要內容包括:第一,問題辨析(第一章)--緒論與問題提出。 在根據需求背景、供給背景、政策背景和理論背景的分析基礎上,將民宿經營 者作為研究對象,重點關注和研究民宿經營者的職業價值觀、情感勞動和獲得 感等影響民宿發展的關鍵因素;第二,文獻解析(第二章)--文獻回顧與理論 基礎。搜集并閱讀國內外相關研究文獻,對職業價值觀、情感勞動與獲得感等 相關研究結果進行系統梳理,尋找研究突破口和切入點。回顧并梳理相關基礎 理論,為本研究的開展奠定理論基礎;第三,理論探析(第三、四、五章)。 主要分析核心變量的內涵與結構維度,通過對民宿經營者的深度訪談資料和網 絡輔助資料收集,對民宿經營者的職業價值觀、情感勞動和獲得感開展系統的 理論研究,探究民宿經營者的經營動機、職業價值觀的內涵、結構維度;剖析 情感勞動的行為過程、表現形式、產生動因、影響效果;研析民宿經營者獲得 感的內涵與結構維度及其形成機理;第四,實證分析(第六章)。通過問卷調 查獲取662份有效樣本數據,以此為基礎測量民宿經營者的職業價值觀、情感勞II 動和獲得感,并檢驗職業價值觀、情感勞動對民宿經營者獲得感的作用關系和 影響機理;第五,策略研析(第七章)。在總結民宿經營者職業價值觀、情感 勞動、獲得感三個變量的內涵與維度、民宿經營者職業價值觀對情感勞動和獲 得感影響作用的基礎上,針對性提出民宿經營者如何提供情感勞動和提升獲得 感的策略,為民宿經營者的管理和民宿業態良性發展提供理論依據與實踐指導。 本研究的的主要結論包括: (1)職業價值觀是民宿經營者的多動機表現:民宿經營者的經營動機可以 劃分為利益導向動機、生活方式動機和創業發展動機三個類型;經營動機是民 宿經營者職業價值觀的重要表征與反映。民宿經營者職業價值觀由利益導向型 價值觀、生活方式型價值觀和創業發展型價值觀三個維度構成。 (2)民宿經營者情感勞動涉及多個過程、具有多行為表現、受到多因素作 用、會產生多元影響:民宿經營者情感勞動可以分為情感勞動的前期、中期和 后期三個階段,分別對應于主客互動儀式中的互動準備、互動進程、互動結果 三個互動儀式過程;民宿經營者情感勞動分為功能性情感勞動和社交性情感勞 動兩大類,包括圍繞具體服務內容展開的,以及增加溝通聯系、提升人際關系 的情感表達行為等多種行為表現形式;民宿經營者情感勞動的產生是內外部因 素共同作用的結果;民宿經營者情感勞動對顧客會產生“增進信任感”、“提 升歸屬感”、“增強重購意愿”、“促進口碑宣傳”等多元影響; (3)民宿經營者獲得感具有多維度和雙生形成機理:民宿經營獲得感包含 物質獲得感、情感獲得感和精神獲得感三個維度;民宿經營者獲得感的形成機 理存在 “外在情境驅動型”的形成機理——“外生機理”和“內在需求自覺型” 形成機理——“內生機理”的雙生機理的相互作用。 (4)民宿經營者職業價值觀、情感勞動與獲得感各維度存在顯著的強弱差 異,具體表現為生活方式型價值觀是民宿經營者的主流價值觀、民宿經營者在 情感勞動中以深層表達行為為主、民宿經營者獲得感以情感獲得感居多。 (5)民宿經營者職業價值觀對情感勞動具有顯著的正向影響。其中,利益 導向型價值觀對表面表達行為有正向影響,對自然表達行為和深層表達行為的 正向影響不顯著;生活方式型價值觀對自然表達行為和深層表達行為有正向影 響,對表面表達行為有負向影響;創業發展型價值觀對自然表達行為和深層表 達行為有正向影響,對表面表達行為的正向影響不顯著。 (6)民宿經營者職業價值觀對獲得感具有顯著的正向影響。其中,利益導III 向型價值觀對民宿經營者的物質獲得感、情感獲得感和精神獲得感均未產生顯 著的正向影響;生活方式型價值觀對物質獲得感的影響不顯著,對情感獲得感 和精神獲得感有正向影響;創業發展型價值觀對物質獲得感和精神獲得感有正 向影響,對情感獲得感的正向影響不顯著。 (7)民宿經營者情感勞動對獲得感具有顯著的正向影響。其中,情感勞動 的自然表達行為對物質獲得感、情感獲得感和精神獲得感有正向影響;情感勞 動的表面表達行為對物質獲得感、情感獲得感具有負向影響,對精神獲得感影 響的負向不顯著;情感勞動的深層表達行為對物質獲得感的正向影響不顯著, 對情感獲得感和精神獲得感有正向影響; (8)情感勞動在職業價值觀對民宿經營者獲得感的影響過程中起到部分中 介作用,即職業價值觀可以直接影響民宿經營者獲得感,也可以通過影響情感 勞動進而影響獲得感。情感勞動的中介作用是通過情感勞動的自然表達行為、 表面表達行為和深層表達行為三個維度對職業價值觀與民宿經營者獲得感的作 用過程起影響作用的。 在上述結論的基礎上,本研究提出相應地民宿經營管理建議。首先,經營 者個人層面:1)反思并合理調整職業價值觀;2)真誠付出,提倡以自然表達 和深層表達行為提供情感勞動;3)不同階段,采取正確、有效地情感勞動方式; 4)擺正期望,全面提升多重獲得感;5)女性經營者要平衡“業務”與“家務” 的關系。其次,行業及政府層面:1)健全和完善各項規章制度,鼓勵和支持民 宿發展;2)為民宿經營提供資金與金融支持;3)支持成立民宿行業協會。 本研究的主要貢獻包括:第一,本研究對民宿經營者職業價值觀、情感勞 動和獲得感進行了深入剖析,闡明了三個核心概念的內涵及其維度,建立了三 個核心概念的測度體系;第二,重點聚集于目前研究幾近空白的民宿經營者獲 得感,比較系統、深入地探究了民宿經營者獲得感的內涵與結構維度、影響因 素與形成機理,拓展并豐富了“獲得感”理論的相關研究;第三,本研究探索 和驗證了民宿經營者職業價值觀、情感勞動對獲得感的影響機制,拓展和深化 了民宿經營者理論方面的相關研究;第四,本研究基于民宿經營者職業價值觀、 情感勞動和獲得感等三者之間的作用關系,建構了提升民宿經營者獲得感的策 略體系,對民宿經營者的高質量發展具有較強的實踐指導意義。 關鍵詞:民宿經營者 職業價值觀 情感勞動 獲得感 影響機理V Abstract Homestay is a kind of “warm accommodation and life experience with soul”. It has become an important accommodation product in the new era of mass tourism, which has become an important accommodation product that meets the needs of an increasingly better life of the people and has attracted extensive public attention .Scholars have relatively lagged in studies about homestay operators, which are viewed as the “soul” and “core” of the homestays. The operators’ work value, emotional labor and sense of acquisition are important variables in the operation process of the homestay, influencing the kindly development of the homestay. A systematic and in-depth study of the homestay operators’work value, emotional labor and sense of acquisition will help to grasp the key elements of the development of homestay, which provides theoretical support and practical guidance for the management and kindly development of the homestay. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the relationship between the work value, emotional labor and sense of acquisition of the homestay operators. This study is conducted around three questions: What, is to study the definition of the concept of variables, identify the essential attributes of variables; Why, is to theoretically analyze and study the relationship between research variables and the mediating effect and influence mechanism between variables; How, is to verify the interrelationship between research variables and the impact of mediating effect, and explore the improvement path of the homestay operators’ sense of acquisition .The specific research process is constructed according to the logical train of thought of “ issue analysis - literature analysis - theoretical analysis - empirical analysis - strategy analysis”. The main contents of this research include:Firstly, the issue analysis (chapter 1): introduction and problem presentation. Based on the analysis of demand background, supply background, policy background and theoretical background, this paper takes the homestay operators as the research object, focusing on and studying the critical factors that affect the development of homestay , such as the homestay operator'sVI work values, emotional labor and sense of acquisition. Secondly, literature analysis (Chapter 2): literature review and theoretical basis. In order to look for the breakthrough and entry point of the research, this paper collected and read relevant research literature at home and abroad, and systematically sorted out the relevant research results of work values, emotional labor and sense of acquisition. At the same time, the relevant basic theories are reviewed and sorted out to lay a theoretical foundation for the development of this study. Thirdly, theoretical analysis(chapter 3, 4 and 5) .It mainly analyzes the connotation and structural dimension of core variables .Through the in-depth interview data and network-assisted data collection of the homestay operators, a systematic theoretical study on their work values, emotional labor and sense of acquisition was conducted ,so as to explore their business motivations, connotation and structural dimensions of work value; analyze the connotation, structural dimension, behavioral performance, formation motivation and effect of emotional labor; analyze the connotation and structural dimension of the operators’ sense of acquisition and its formation mechanism. Fourthly (Chapter 6), empirical analysis. Using 662 valid questionnaire data to measure the relationship among the work values, emotional labor and sense of acquisition of the homestay operators, empirically analyze and test the relationship between work value and emotional labor on operators’ sense of acquisition. Fifthly, strategy analysis (Chapter 7). On the basis of summing up the connotation and dimension of the three variables of work value, emotional labor and sense of acquisition, and the influence of the work value of the homestay operators on emotional labor and sense of acquisition, it is pointed out how the homestay operators can provide emotional labor. The strategy of improving the sense of acquisition, providing theoretical basis and practical guidance for the management of the homestay operators and the kindly development of the homestay industry. The main conclusions of this study are summarized as follows: (1) Work values are the multi-motivation performance of the homestay operators: the business motives of the homestay operators are mainly divided into three categories: interest-oriented motivation, lifestyle motivation and entrepreneurial development motivation; business motivation is an important representation of theVII professional values of the homestay operators. Moreover, the professional values of the homestay operators are composed of three dimensions: profit-oriented values, lifestyle values and entrepreneurial development values. (2) Emotional labor of homestay operators involves multiple processes, multiple behaviors, multiple factors, and multiple effects: the emotional labor of the homestay operators can be divided into three stages: the early, middle and final stages of emotional labor. The interactive ritual process of interaction preparation, interaction process and interaction result in the interaction between host and guest; the emotional labor of the housekeeper is divided into two categories: functional emotional labor and social emotional labor, including emotional expression behavior around specific service content. And a variety of behavioral expressions such as increasing communication and enhancing interpersonal relationship; the emotional labor of the homestay operators is the result of internal and external factors; the emotional labor of the homestay operators will produce “enhance customer trust” and “enhance the sense of belonging of customers, strengthen the willingness to refactor, and promote word of mouth publicity and other multiple influences; (3) The sense of acquisition of homestay operators has a multi-dimensional and twin formation mechanism: the acquisition of the property of the homestay includes three dimensions: material acquisition, emotional acquisition and spiritual acquisition; the formation mechanism of the homestay operators’ perception is “external context-driven”. The formation mechanism of type-the formation mechanism of exogenous mechanism and intrinsic demand consciousness- the interaction of the endogenous mechanism twin mechanism. (4)There are significant differences in the strengths of the work value, emotional labor and the sense of acquisition of the homestay operators, which are manifested in the following aspects: lifestyle values are the mainstream work value of the homestay operators, the deep expression behavior is the main part of the emotional labor of the homestay operators and the homestay operators gain more emotional feelings. (5) The work value of the homestay operators has a significant positive effect on emotional labor. The specific influences are: profit-oriented values have a positive impact on the surface expression behavior, and have no significant effect on theVIII natural expression behavior and deep expression behavior; Type values have a positive impact on natural expression behavior and deep expression behavior, and have negative effects on surface expression behaviors; entrepreneurial development values have a positive impact on natural expression behavior and deep expression behavior, and have no significant effect on surface expression behavior. (6) The work value of homestay operators has a significant positive impact on the sense of acquisition. The specific impacts are: the profit-oriented values have no significant impact on the material acquisition, emotional acquisition and spiritual acquisition of homestay operators; The influence of mode-type values on material acquisition is not significant, and it has a positive impact on emotional acquisition and spiritual acquisition; entrepreneurial developmental values have a positive impact on material acquisition and spiritual acquisition, and have no significant effect on emotional acquisition; (7)Emotional labor of the homestay operators has a significant positive impact on the sense of acquisition. The specific impact is that the natural expression behavior of emotional labor has a positive impact on material acquisition, emotional acquisition and spiritual acquisition; the surface expression of emotional labor Behavior has a negative impact on material acquisition and emotional acquisition, and has no significant effect on spiritual acquisition. The deep expression behavior of emotional labor has no significant effect on material acquisition, and has positive influence on emotional acquisition and spiritual acquisition. (8)Emotional labor plays a part in mediating the influence of professional values on the perception of the homestay operators. That is, work values can directly affect the sense of acquisition of the homestay operators, and can also affect the sense of acquisition by affecting emotional labor. The mediating role of emotional labor is to influence the process of work values and the feelings of the homestay operators through the three dimensions of emotional expression, surface expression behavior and deep expression behavior. Based on the above conclusions, this study proposes corresponding management recommendations for the homestay.Firstly, the individual level of the homestay operators:1)reasonable adjustment of professional values;2) sincere giving,IX advocating the provision of emotional labor through natural expression and deep expression; 3) adopt correct and effective emotional labor mode in different stages; 4) set expectations and comprehensively improve multiple sense of acquisition; 5) female managers should balance the relationship between “business” and “housework”; Secondly, at the industry and government level: 1) Improve and improve various rules and regulations, encourage and support the development of B&B; 2) Provide financial and financial support for the operation of the hotel; 3) Support the establishment of the homestay Industry Association. The main contributions of this study include: firstly, this study conducted an in-depth analysis of the work value, emotional labor and sense of acquisition of the homestay operators, clarified the connotation and dimensions of the three core concepts, and established a measurement system of the three core concepts; Secondly, the focus is on the sense of acquisition of the homestay operators who have been studied nearly blanks. Then systematically and deeply explored the connotation, structural dimension, influencing factors and formation mechanism of the operators' sense of acquisition, and analyzed the influence of work value on the homestay operators ,and expanded and enriched the relevant research on the theory of “sense of acquisition”;Thirdly, this study explored and verified the formation mechanism of the sense of acquisition of the homestay operators,revealed the influence mechanism of work value,emotional labor on the sense of acquisition of homestay operators, and expanded and deepened relevant studies on the theory of homestay operators.Fourthly, based on the relationship between the work value, emotional labor and sense of acquisition,this study constructed a strategic system to enhance the sense of acquisition of the homestay operators, which has a strong practical guiding significance for the high-quality development of the homestay operators. Keywords: homestay operators, work value, emotional labor, sense of acquisition, influence mechanismXI 目 錄 第 1 章 緒論...............................................................................................................1 1.1 研究背景與問題提出.....................................................................................1 1.1.1 選題背景...............................................................................................1 1.1.2 研究問題的提出...................................................................................6 1.2 研究目的與研究意義.....................................................................................7 1.2.1 研究目的...............................................................................................7 1.2.2 研究意義...............................................................................................8 1.3 研究思路與技術路線......................................................................................9 1.3.1 研究思路...............................................................................................9 1.3.2 技術路線圖...........................................................................................9 1.4 研究內容與研究方法...................................................................................10 1.4.1 研究內容.............................................................................................10 1.4.2 研究方法.............................................................................................11 1.5 研究重點與難點...........................................................................................13 1.5.1 研究重點.............................................................................................13 1.5.2 研究難點.............................................................................................13 第 2 章 文獻回顧與理論基礎............................................................................................ 15 2.1 相關概念界定...............................................................................................15 2.1.1 民宿、民宿主人、民宿業主與民宿經營管理者.............................15 2.1.2 情感、情感勞動、職業情感與工作情感.........................................17 2.1.3 獲得感、幸福感與滿意度.................................................................18 2.2 民宿經營者的相關研究...............................................................................20 2.2.1 民宿的概念.........................................................................................20 2.2.2 民宿經營者的經營動機研究.............................................................21 2.2.3 民宿經營者其他相關研究.................................................................22 2.3 職業價值觀相關研究...................................................................................23 2.3.1 職業價值觀的概念.............................................................................23 2.3.2 職業價值觀的結構與測量.................................................................24 2.3.3 職業價值觀的作用結果.....................................................................26XII 2.3.4 研究述評.............................................................................................28 2.4 情感勞動的相關研究...................................................................................28 2.4.1 情感勞動的概念與內涵.....................................................................28 2.4.2 情感勞動的特征.................................................................................31 2.4.3 情感勞動的結構與測量.....................................................................33 2.4.4 情感勞動的影響因素與作用結果.....................................................36 2.4.5 研究述評.............................................................................................38 2.5 獲得感的相關研究.......................................................................................39 2.5.1 獲得感的緣起.....................................................................................39 2.5.2 獲得感的概念與內涵.........................................................................40 2.5.3 獲得感的特征.....................................................................................42 2.5.4 獲得感的結構與測量.........................................................................43 2.5.5 獲得感的影響因素研究.....................................................................46 2.5.6 研究述評.............................................................................................47 2.6 變量之間的關系研究...................................................................................48 2.6.1 職業價值觀與經營動機.....................................................................48 2.6.2 價值觀與情感勞動.............................................................................49 2.6.3 價值觀與獲得感.................................................................................50 2.6.4 情感勞動與獲得感.............................................................................50 2.6.5 理論模型構建.....................................................................................50 2.7 相關的基礎理論...........................................................................................51 2.7.1 馬斯洛需求層次理論.........................................................................51 2.7.2 自我決定理論.....................................................................................52 2.7.3 互動儀式鏈理論.................................................................................53 2.7.4 資源守恒理論.....................................................................................54 2.7.5 社會交換理論.....................................................................................55 2.8 本章小結.......................................................................................................56 第 3 章 民宿經營者職業價值觀研究 ................................................................................ 57 3.1 研究數據獲取方法.......................................................................................57 3.2 研究過程.......................................................................................................58 3.2.1 資料收集.............................................................................................58XIII 3.2.2 資料整理與分析.................................................................................59 3.3 研究結果分析...............................................................................................66 3.3.1 民宿經營者的類型劃分.....................................................................66 3.3.2 不同類型民宿經營者的經營動機及特征.........................................68 3.3.3 民宿經營者職業價值觀分析.............................................................74 3.4 本章小結........................................................................................................77 第 4 章 民宿經營者情感勞動研究................................................................................... 79 4.1 研究視角與理論依據...................................................................................79 4.2 研究方法及數據收集過程...........................................................................80 4.3 研究結果.......................................................................................................81 4.3.1 民宿經營者情感勞動過程分析.........................................................81 4.3.2 民宿經營者情感勞動表現形式.........................................................87 4.3.3 民宿經營者情感勞動產生的動因.....................................................97 4.3.4 民宿經營者情感勞動對顧客態度和行為的影響.............................99 4.3.5 民宿經營者與顧客情感互動模型構建...........................................103 4.4 本章小結.....................................................................................................104 第 5 章 民宿經營者獲得感研究......................................................................................107 5.1 需求、獲得與獲得感的理性分析..............................................................107 5.2 民宿經營者的獲得與獲得感.....................................................................109 5.3 民宿經營者獲得感結構維度的理性分析.................................................111 5.3.1 進化心理學視角下的民宿經營者需求與獲得感...........................111 5.3.2 積極心理學理論視角下的民宿經營者需求與獲得感...................113 5.3.3 馬斯洛需求層次理論視角下的民宿經營者需求與獲得感...........114 5.3.4 自我決定理論視角下的民宿經營者需求與獲得感.......................115 5.3.5 民宿經營者獲得感結構維度的提出...............................................115 5.4 民宿經營者獲得感結構維度研究..............................................................116 5.4.1 研究設計...........................................................................................116 5.4.2 訪談資料分析...................................................................................116 5.4.3 民宿經營者獲得感結構維度研究結果與討論...............................120 5.5 民宿經營者獲得感的形成機理.................................................................124XIV 5.5.1 民宿經營者獲得感形成的主客觀因素...........................................124 5.5.2 民宿經營者獲得感的形成機理.......................................................129 5.6 本章小結.....................................................................................................133 第 6 章 民宿經營者職業價值觀對情感勞動和獲得感的影響研究.........................135 6.1 研究思路.....................................................................................................135 6.1.1 研究目的............................................................................................135 6.1.2 職業價值觀、情感勞動與獲得感的邏輯關系...............................135 6.2 研究假設與理論模型.................................................................................136 6.2.1 研究假設提出...................................................................................136 6.2.2 理論模型構建...................................................................................143 6.3 研究設計.....................................................................................................144 6.3.1 研究對象與樣本選擇.......................................................................144 6.3.2 變量測量...........................................................................................145 6.3.3 數據收集與分析方法.......................................................................149 6.4 預調研.........................................................................................................151 6.4.1 預調研基本情況...............................................................................151 6.4.2 預調研數據的信度和效度分析.......................................................153 6.4.3 問卷修正與正式測量問卷形成.......................................................159 6.5 正式調研及數據分析.................................................................................160 6.5.1 正式調研對象和樣本容量...............................................................160 6.5.2 問卷發放、回收與處理...................................................................161 6.5.3 數據分析...........................................................................................165 6.6 本章小結.....................................................................................................198 第 7 章 研究結論總結、討論與展望.............................................................................201 7.1 研究發現、結論總結與討論.....................................................................201 7.1.1 職業價值觀是民宿經營者的多動機表現.......................................202 7.1.2 民宿經營者情感勞動有多過程、多行為表現、多因素作用和多元 影響.............................................................................................................203 7.1.3 民宿經營者獲得感具有多維度和雙生形成機理...........................204 7.1.4 民宿經營者的職業價值觀、情感勞動和獲得感在人口統計特征變XV 量上存在顯著差異.....................................................................................206 7.1.5 民宿經營者職業價值觀、情感勞動與獲得感各維度存在顯著的強 弱差異.........................................................................................................209 7.1.6 民宿經營者職業價值觀對情感勞動具有顯著的影響...................210 7.1.7 民宿經營者職業價值觀對獲得感具有顯著的正向影響...............212 7.1.8 民宿經營者情感勞動對獲得感具有顯著的正向影響...................214 7.1.9 在職業價值觀對民宿經營者獲得感的作用過程中,情感勞動有部 分中介作用.................................................................................................216 7.2 研究貢獻與管理啟示.................................................................................217 7.2.1 研究貢獻...........................................................................................217 7.2.2 研究啟示與管理建議.......................................................................218 7.3 研究創新、不足與展望.............................................................................223 7.3.1 研究創新...........................................................................................223 7.3.2 研究不足...........................................................................................223 7.3.3 研究展望...........................................................................................224 參考文獻....................................................................................................................................227 致謝.............................................................................................................................................245 附錄 A 預調研問卷 .............................................................................................................247 附錄 B 正式調研問卷.........................................................................................................251 附錄 C 方差分析附表.........................................................................................................255 個人簡歷、在學期間發表的學術論文及研究成果......................................................2631
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